This paper presents the application of sustainable heritage management at the Rabai Kayas of Kenya, the challenges faced and how these have been tackled.
It argues that heritage has a role in sustainable community development and hopes that this will affect policy decisions, increasing resource allocation to heritage management and conservation. Nurse, This definition is, however, problematic as it is perceived to link development with the natural environment. This is partly because many people, especially natural scientists, saw or still see the physical environment as the one that is affected by development projects and therefore much effort has been expended on trying to mitigate the effects of development on the physical environment.
Consequently for a long time, sustainable development has been defined within the constricted notions of modernization theories of 3 Formal name is the World Commission on Environment and Development WCED. In recent years however, it has been recognized that sustainable development should include both the social, political and economic dimensions of development as well Bell, ; OECD, ; Kadekodi, With this paradigm shift, cultural heritage is now recognised as another important facet of sustainable development.
It is now understood that the meanings and values that communities, as well as individuals, ascribe to culture do to a large extent influence or create site congruent patterns of economic development. The value that a community ascribes to a particular place or object will guide how that place or object is going to be used enjoyed or perceived Abungu Heritage is a broad spectrum of tangible and intangible elements, often the result of long-term human and natural actions.
What is sustainable cultural heritage? Sustainable cultural heritage management are all those factors when put together enable the community to live sustainably in harmony with its heritage resources. Sustainable cultural heritage does not only refer to cultural tourism and its benefits but to a variety of factors - use of traditional conservation methods, management and interpretation knowledge - that can sustain communities. Sustainability is reached when the management mechanism set up guarantees the conservation of the site values in the long term Moriset, It implies that the management mechanism is driven by available financial, human, and technical means, and that the values on which the mechanism is rooted are accurately identified.
This mechanism is not rigid but is flexible enough to absorb social evolutions, ensuring the preservation of the past while accepting change. The World Bank has recognized that culture can be used as a resource for economic development.
The Bank argues that those communities that are assisted to preserve their cultural assets, witness more investment in the local area, which in turn leads to increased employment and higher levels of income and reduced poverty.
This in turn generates more resources for environmental and cultural conservation. Conversely, lack of heritage conservation leads to social losses resulting in ills like increased levels of crime. Community refers to a wide range of concepts from a geographically bounded physical place with people living together and their livelihoods and social interaction needs, to groups of people whose interaction is not based on physical proximity but on common interests Garkovich, Studies of community activeness have documented serious gaps in local social organization and a dearth of locality- oriented action especially in rural areas Bridger and Luloff, It is also difficult to get individual actors to pursue joint welfare or interests.
As a result the establishment of a widely shared community understanding of heritage values is important but difficult to attain because of diverse and competing interests and stakeholders. What are community resources?
Community heritage resources are the physical elements that define each community. They are the tangible embodiments of intangible historical, cultural, aesthetic cachet pour maigrir des cuisses blog social values imparting to an area its particular sense of time and place.
Sustainable heritage conservation therefore, is about managing these elements for the benefit of present and future generations: the management of continuity within a context of change. Rabai Rabai is a region that is about 50km west of Mombasa City withadults and a population density of per sq. Kenya Government The area is inhabited by the Rabai or Aravai who are a part of the Mijikenda Miji — villages, kenda — nineor nine villages, ethnic group.
These groups claim to be descended from the same area of Singwaya Shungwaya and speak the same language with various dialects Spear Historical and archaeological evidence show that these groups - who include the Agiriama, Akambe, Arihe, Aravai, Achonyi, Adigo, Aduruma, Adzihana and Akauma - may have migrated from their original homeland of Singwaya thought to be in modern day southern Somaliato their present land sometime in the 16th century MutoroKiriama The land of the Mijikenda is bounded in the south by the Kenya-Tanzania border and in the northby the Sabaka River.
The historical development and location of the Kayas is intertwined with the beliefs and culture of the Mijikenda. Initially, the ancestors of these groups settled in six individually fortified hilltop villages or Kayas along the ridge behind the Kenyan coast. Three more Kayas were later added. The settlement in these nine distinct Kayas defined each of the nine distinct groups who make up the Mijikenda Nyamweru The siting of these Kayas on forested hilltops was a result of security concerns from marauding pastoral attackers.
For instance, the Aravai claim that it was as a result of these attacks from the Akwavi Maasai that they settled in their Kaya. After this settlement, each of the nine groups is said to have remained within the Kaya for a long time until mid 19th century when as a result of enhanced security and population growth, the various groups left their forest refuges and began to clear and cultivate away from them ParkinWillis, However, even after the Kayas were abandoned, becoming uninhabited forested areas, the laws and rituals governing their protection remained intact Kiriama, Local communities led by their elders, maintained the sites of the original Kaya settlements as sacred places and burial grounds.
The cutting of trees and destruction of vegetation around these sites was prohibited, thus preserving the surrounding Kaya forest as a screen or buffer for the forest clearings. Thus while the surrounding areas were gradually converted to farmland, the Kaya sites still remain as the few remaining patches of indigenous forests and manmade landscapes.
Many of the forest paths to the historical villages are still quite distinct and in some cases, remnants of gates and palisades are also visible. Kaya settlement patterns A typical Kaya is a clear circular opening several hundred meters across with a wooden fence or stockade all around it and paths leading through it via a dense primeval forest.
The gates into the clearing have dry stone walling of two meters and a wooden doorframe. Powerful charms and armed guards protect these gates. Village meetings, by the council of elders ngambi would be held in a grove of trees or a large thatched structure, or Moro, located in the centre of the Kaya. Certain sacred and protective objects, called Fingo, which were brought from the original homeland of Singwaya, and essential to the well-being of the community, are believed to be buried in a central location in the Kaya.
According to the elders, the fingo, consist of a pot full of an assortment of medicine. The residential part of the Kaya is known as a boma and this was a large expanse of land where houses were built together. Coconut palms, used to tap the traditional brew — mnazi or tembo, were also planted in this area Githito The council of elders is responsible for the day-to-day running of community affairs including spiritual, social and economic matters.
The council meets regularly to deliberate on issues related to food, water and security. Council of elders are respected members of the community who have gone through various initiation rites. They are thus an example of the continued existence of traditional forms of land use that supports biological diversity. As the natural and cultural aspects of the Kayas heritage are so closely interlinked, it follows that the integrity and security of this heritage is closely linked to its authenticity.
The Kayas will continue to exist and be protected as long as local beliefs and regard for or use for them persists. The women on the other hand, harvested trees from the forest for use as fuel. This was destroying the fabric of the Kayas. There was need therefore, to start a programme that will compliment the local belief systems in preserving the Kayas; hence the Rabai Kaya conservation programme, initiated in by the National Museums of Kenya in conjunction with the Rabai community and the French Embassy in Kenya.
The objective of the Rabai Kaya conservation programme therefore, is to promote the conservation of the Kayas by reviving interest in the sites as centres of culture, history and biodiversity. This revival however, endeavours to promote the sustainable use of Kayas by providing programmes that enable the inhabitants generate income from this resource.
This is achieved through: 1. Sustainable use: Encouraging and training the communities on the sustainable use of the forests through assistance to introduce income generating activities such as beekeeping and craft making as a way of conserving the forests while creating wealth in the community. Herbal Medicine. Many Kaya elders are herbalists. The programme harnessed this knowledge by collaborating with the elders to identify plants of medicinal value in Kaya Mudzi Muvya and thereafter encouraging the use of these plants in the community and other neighbouring groups.
The project also assists the elders to prepare the medicines hygienically for sale to the wider community. The Kayas lie within the tourist circuit of the coastal Kenya. In consultation with the local elders, Kaya Mudzi Muvya was opened up for eco-tourism with the establishment of nature trails.
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This community then established the Rabai Kaya Conservation Association whose aim was to set up an ecotourism project whose objective was to conserve the ecological and cultural heritage of Rabai. This committee is chosen at the Annual General meeting attended by all group members.
After the Rabai people defined the Kaya community, formed the Rabai Conservation Association, elected the management committee and agreed on what projects to undertake, the National Museums of Kenya then started fundraising for the project. They have been equipped with relevant skills of setting up and managing an apiary. The project also made available equipment for a modern apiary. A total of Langstroth hives were bought and installed inside Kaya Mudzi Muvya and the hives have been colonized.
Honey from the beehives is being harvested and is packed on gm jars and sold at USD3. Apiary selection and setting Two sites within the Kaya were identified for apiary establishment.
But in recent years a trend has began of encouraging cultural tourism as well. This kind of tourism does not only make the visitors tourists interact with local communities, but enables the local communities to earn income from their cultural resources thus contributing to the conservation of these heritage resources. The Rabai Kayas eco-tourism and conservation project is one such initiative. The project targets not only foreign tourists, but also local visitors, especially school and college students.
These are the visitors of tomorrow so involving them now will ensure sustainability of the project. Eight male and female youths who received tour guiding training are now used inconducting visitors around the Kaya.
Establishment of trail route The nature trails at the Kaya forest were identified and cleared. Training of the Management Committee The management committee members also received project implementation, general and financial management training to equip them with project management skills.
Identification of areas for woodlots and reforestation Areas within the Kaya buffer zone, which had been destroyed by encroachment, were identified as ideal for establishing woodlots and these areas have been planted with indigenous species. The aim is to encourage people to harvest trees within these woodlots and thus protect the actual Kaya from encroachment. The replanting of the woodlots will be a continuous process. The centre consists of two floors: the upper floor is used as an information centre and shop while the ground floor serves as a honey storage and processing area.
The information centre presents the history, archaeology and biodiversity of the Kayas, the role of the elders and the general layout of the Kaya and the areas to be visited6. Sustainability From the onset of the project, it was realised that for it to succeed, the involvement of the women and youth was important. This is because the women are the ones who were getting wood as well as logs for house construction from the forest.
The youth on the other hand were also getting logs for construction as well as mining for construction sand. The result was a 6 Prior to the establishment of the project, with permission from the elders, the writer and other archaeologists conducted archaeological investigations inside the nearby Kaya Mudzi Mwiru the oldest of Rabai Kayas and information gotten from here is displayed in the information center.
Women and youth involved have taken the lead to tackle these problems. Achievement The main achievement of the project is that it has united the Kaya elders, women and youth groups which used to be antagonistic to each other. The Kaya elders saw the women and youth as intent on destroying the Kayas while the women and youth saw the elders as preserving an archaic tradition and forest that did not benefit them materially. Both have now seen the benefit of preserving the Kayas and are working together.
The medicinal value of the kayas is now widely appreciated. The project is also an example of how a partnership between a state institution the National Museums of Kenyadevelopment partners French and the local community can not only sustainably conserve a heritage resource but how it can contribute to minimizing environmental disasters.
At a macro level, such a partnership contributes to the Millennium Development Goal of poverty reduction. Challenges Since the project was to take place in a sacred forest, something that had not huile dolive perdre du poids zumba done before, there was some resistance from some of the local people who perceived this as a desecration of holy places. Adequate sensitization helped to overcome this perception.
Another challenge was lack of locals trained in project management or local people who could train the management committee on these aspects. This was addressed by the project: the National Museums of Kenya, mobilised other partners to undertake the training as part of project activities.
Experts should only be engaged in an advisory capacity. Consequences of the opening of the Kaya Currently, no adverse effects have been observed from opening up the Kayas, which were traditionally sacred places that only the initiated were allowed to enter. In order for the Rabai Kayas to be opened for eco-tourism, the elders had to conduct ceremonies to seek and obtain permission from the ancestors for uninitiated people to enter the Kayas. However, access to certain parts of the kayas is still restricted to initiated elders only.
Kayas are fragile ecosystems that could be destroyed by large human traffic. A formula is currently being worked out to determine the annual visitor carrying capacity. For instance, the harvesting of sand and the cutting of trees around the vicinity of the Kayas has stopped and the community members are at the forefront of reporting infractions to the authorities as well as arresting culprits.
This model of heritage management has ensured that the resource the Kayas is conserved both for the present and future generations. This has been achieved by reinvesting money into the site and by maintaining the intangible aspects associated with the site allowing the elders to continue carrying out their ceremonies and for the visitors to observe the rules and regulations of the sacred place.
This has ensured that the sacredness of the Kaya is maintained in spite of its new role as a tourist attraction.
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At the same time, the community better appreciates its heritage and also benefits from improved livelihoods as a result of the revenue stream from the site. The example of the Kayas reinforces the view that sustaining heritage is masque pour cheveux oeuf et huile dolive oeuf process of societal continuity at spiritual, economic, social and psychological levels, requiring strong stakeholder involvement.
As Rössler argues: The outstanding universal value of World Heritage sites is based on local values, local experiences and most importantly on local conservation efforts. World Heritage is not only the success story of heritage conservation efforts on a global scale, it is also a success story of local people and communities who make this global heritage possible p References Abungu, P. In Ballarin, M. Kampala: Fountain Press A reflection on development: from development to transformation. In Addo, H.
London: Hodder and Stoughton: Bell, S. Measuring Sustainability: Learning by doing. London: Earthscan Publications. Bridger, J. Toward an interactional approach to sustainable community development. Journal of Rural Studies, Vol. Garkovich, L. An historical view of community development. In Robinson Jr, J. London: Sage Publications: Githitho, A. Kilifi: CFCU internal report. Hassler, U, Algreen-Ussing, G.
Cultural heritage and sustainable development in SUIT. Hembd, J. Sustainable communities: sustainability and community development. Kadekodi, G. Paradigms of sustainable development.
Journal of SID Vol. Kiriama, H. Kampala: Fountain Publishers Memory and Heritage: Shimoni slave caves in southern Kenya. Shimoni: Contested Heritage. Historic Environment, Vol.
Loulanski, T. Cultural heritage and sustainable development: exploring a common ground. Moriset, S. Re-inventing sustainable management mechanisms for African cultural heritage sites: the experience gathered through the Africa projets situés.
Rome: AfricaMutoro, H. An archaeological study of the Mijikenda Kaya settlements on the hinterland Kenya coast. Unpublished Ph. Nurse, K. Culture as the Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development. Report Prepared for Commonwealth Secretariat. London: Malborough House, Pall Mall. Nyamweru, C. Natural cultural sites of Kenya: changing context, changing meaning, Journal of Eastern African Studies, vol.
Sustainable Development: Critical issues. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Parkin, D. Sacred Void: Spatial images of work and ritual among the Giriama of Kenya.
Cambridge: Cambridge University. Rössler, M. Partners in site management. A shift in focus: heritage and community involvement. In Albert, M. Community development through World Heritage. Spear, T. The Kaya Complex: a history of the Mijikenda peoples of the Kenya coast to Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau.
Our Common Future. Willis J, Azania World Bank. Cultural Heritage and Historic Cities Newsletter. Washington, DC. The site covers most of the historic core of the city, but not all of its historically important areas or aspects. It is under various serious pressures as part of the rapidly developing metropolis. There is not enough comprehensive planning for its preservation and management, but diverse conservation efforts have had an impact on the historic city over time.
This paper focuses on the cultural site of Historic Cairo, a city that holds an exceptional position within the patrimony of humankind while it also faces tremendous and multifarious challenges. The authors have lived in the city and were involved in historic preservation projects there for more than twenty years. The paper presents the reflections and opinions of conservation professionals, not those of governmental or non-governmental agencies that are involved in Figure 1: Al-Darb a-Ahmar district within Historic Cairo preservation and management of the World Heritage Site, now part of an enormous metropolis.
Cairo also owes its existence to its strategic location on the river, at the point where the Nile branches into the Delta before entering the Mediterranean.
To guard it, in the early 2nd and late 3rd centuries the ancient Romans built a fortress called Babylon of Egypt, of which substantial parts still remain Sheehan, The strategic importance of the site was recognised by the Arabs who conquered the land in A.
In the following centuries, the city expanded north along the Nile, as rulers of Egypt ordered the construction of new urban districts, each centred around a congregational mosque. A number of these huge courtyard mosques still stand, sometimes as the only buildings surviving from their original neighbourhoods.
One of the new settlements, founded in AD, was called al-Qahira and gave the name to the modern city that encompasses many different urban components far beyond the original al-Qahira Thompson, However, the borders of the site were only defined in This is a different World Heritage site than the nearby Memphis and Its Necropolis that includes the famous pyramids in Giza.
Although the site is vast, some significant elements of the historic urban complex of Cairo are outside its boundaries. Also, some of the oldest monuments in Cairo are outside the boundaries of the World Heritage site.
Today inthe description of Cairo in the World Heritage list still reflects the ideas and attitudes towards historic preservation typical of the time of its inscription 33 years ago. Even within such limited definition, the architectural historic resources of Cairo are extraordinarily rich.
More than five hundred buildings are officially listed in the national monuments register Index, ; Warner, Forty-six of the buildings date from the period between years AD and AD, when Egypt was sometimes a province in the Arab empire ruled by a Caliph, and sometimes ruled by local dynasties. The most important one were the Fatimids ADwho ruled from Cairo over a vast empire.
Twenty-seven monuments of this period survive in Cairo, including al-Azhar congregational mosque. The Fatimids surrounded their royal city with massive defence walls, and three formidable city gates are still preserved as important landmarks Raymond, Salah al-Din Ayyub Saladin who vanquished the Fatimids in the late 12th century AD, began the construction of the Citadel on the rocky spur where the Nile Valley is narrowest in the area.
The Citadel, expanded a number of times Lyster,still figures prominently in the Figure 3: The Citadel of Cairo. During this period, a distinct architectural style was locally developed, with architectural decoration organically carved in the structural stone masonry of the walls. To a large extent it still defines the character of the historic city. Many of its buildings are masterpieces of architecture, and the elaborate silhouettes of numerous domes, minarets, and crenellations of Mamluk-period buildings still define the skyline of Historic Cairo.
Behrens-Abouseif,; Hillenbrandt,Blair and Bloom, This architectural style survived long after the Turkish conquest inwhen Cairo became a provincial capital within th e Ottoman Empire. Gradually, influences from metropolitan Istanbul merged with the local tradition in the unique architectural style of 18th century Ottoman Cairo Behrens-Abouseif, — the building in the centre of fig. Most religious buildings belonged to religious trusts waqf, pl. Among charities so supported were numerous sabil-kuttabs, almost unique to Cairo, where drinking water was dispensed as charity from a room set over an underground cistern, with a charitable elementary school above.
More than seventy still remain from over recorded in Cairo in and are an important defining feature of Historic Cairo, although none serves its original purpose.
There Figure 4: The mosque of Sultan Qaitbey were also numerous commercial buildings knownan outstanding example of Mamluk as wikala, or urban caravanserai. Family houses, architecture. In common with many major cities in the Islamic world, Cairo had only a few major thoroughfares and even these were often only as wide as to let two loaded camels pass. The basic urban unit was an alley that branched into a number of cul-de-sacs and housed a self-contained community with all commodities and services its inhabitants needed in their everyday lives Raymond, After sunset, Cairo disintegrated into hundreds of villages as the gates at the entrance to the alleys were closed for security.
Remarkably, many aspects of this urban and social organisation have not only been preserved in the historic city, but carried over into new modern districts. Downtown Cairo emerged with its European-style houses, huge governmental buildings, and straight boulevards, while the historic city to the east of it was left behind, largely untouched Raymond, The distinction between these different urban units is still clearly visible.
By the early 20th century, seasonal lakes within the city and the canal that fed them at the time of the annual Nile flood were filled in, and so this once important aspect of Cairo has now been completely lost. Much of this development consisted of informal settlements, resulting in huge unplanned residential areas. Also, vast tracts of the desert have been turned into housing ranging from high-end gated communities to densely packed apartment blocks.
The historic cemeteries filled with residential houses. As a result, Historic Cairo is now part of one of the largest and most populous cities in the world, facing tremendous development and environmental pressures Raymond, ; Rodenbeck, On the other hand, as inadequate maintenance train rides in nashville in deterioration and collapse of many buildings in the historic districts, many lots within the historic core of Cairo stand empty.
Many historic areas deteriorated and are inhabited by poor populations. Statistics show that the Darb al-Ahmar area within the mediaeval core of Cairo has much higher illiteracy rates among both men and women, higher percentage of families living in a single room, and dwellings without access to running water than Cairo in general Sims, In spite of huge challenges, Historic Cairo maintains its unique values both as a very rich resource of historic architecture, and as an example of traditional forms of human settlement.
This is largely due to conservation efforts. While seldom following a comprehensive planned approach, these interventions cumulatively have had a huge impact. The Comité produced the register of Islamic monuments, and carried out extensive restoration work in numerous buildings, effectively saving the architectural heritage of Cairo as we know it Herz, ; El-Habashi and Warner From the s, different organisations carried out a number of conservation projects in collaboration with the Egyptian antiquities authorities.
The Aga Khan Trust for Culture successfully turned huge rubbish dumps at the edge of the historic city into a public park.
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It also conserved a number of historic buildings as part of a social development and urban improvement Bianca and Jodidio, For years, preservation of Historic Cairo was severely under-funded and consequently received insufficient attention Minabbawy, The project has so far restored more than 70 historic buildings, including some of the most important monuments in the city.
It also brought a more comprehensive and planned approach to the management and preservation of Historic Cairo Historic Cairo, This enabled turning a section of the main spine of the mediaeval city into a pedestrian zone as part of the effort to turn the centre of Historic Cairo into an open-air museum.
After the events of the Arab Spring invehicular traffic returned to the street. However, the improvements to infrastructure have a lasting effect. When the recent conservation work started, the upper floor was unused, and in the ground floor rooms operated an Islamic charity helping the families of cancer victims.
Originally, drinking water stored in a huge underground cistern was distributed as charity from the ground-floor room sabilwhile the upper floor housed an elementary school for the neighbourhood children.
It was founded by the Ottoman Sultan, who wanted the sumptuously decorated building to carry a message of his imperial authority.
He located it next to the mosque of Sayida Zeinab, a venerated shrine which still receives numerous visitors from both far and near, many of them women. Surprisingly, its walls are adorned with about blue-and-white painted Dutch wall-tiles, many of them decorated with landscapes and scenes from the Dutch countryside. After conservation, the ground floor houses a small self-guided bilingual exhibition explaining the building, its history, and its significance.
The Islamic charity continues its operations on the upper floor. Its façade incorporated the entrance to a small neighbourhood mosque at the back of the building. The mosque of Sam Ibn Nuh Shem, the son of Noah was one of the oldest in continuous use in Cairo, probably for more than a thousand years, but did not preserve any historically significant architecture.
In the neighbouring sabil differential settlement of foundations caused by raised groundwater level threatened the building with imminent collapse. This came as a shock to the local community, comprising mostly small-scale traders and craftspeople, many sustaining on very low income, for which the neighbourhood mosque is more than a place of prayer: it is a focal point of community life.
In the overcrowded, noisy environment of Historic Cairo, where many people lack basic services, it provides the qualities of a home: tranquillity, peace, physical and spiritual cleanliness and purity. Emergency shoring installed by the conservation team to prevent further collapse made it possible to keep the mosque open for prayers, but a full reconstruction was beyond the financial means of the community.
Following the plea of the local residents, the conservation team searched for possible sources of funding for a community support project. Means provided by the Local Cultural Fund of the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and by the Ford Foundation allowed for complete re-building of the mosque.
The new design by Agnieszka Dobrowolska used elements of traditional historic architecture of Cairo —familiar to the local people and perceived as appropriate for a mosque—translated into simple forms of modern architecture. A sound and safe structural design was the first priority. In place of the previous accumulation of haphazardly added pieces of masonry and roofing, the new building is structurally integrated, with the original masonry repaired and reinforced Dobrowolska, The project relied on traditional building crafts still practiced in Cairo Dobrowolska,and the skills of workers contributing their handcrafted pieces were essential for the work.
As the reconstruction work progressed, the mosque remained open for prayers all the time, even in the midst of construction. Patrick Godeau By sheer coincidence, two German travelling journeymen arrived in Cairo and joined the project as stonecutters. The travelling journeymen Wandergesellen voluntarily embark on a three-year long journey after completing their professional training.
They typically travel on foot, not staying in any town for longer than three months, and work in exchange for food and shelter, finishing their travels with the same token amount of money that they started with, but richer in experience and skills. They follow the rules of their associations, including a traditional dress: flare-legged corduroy trousers and matching waistcoats, wide-sleeved white shirts, black tailcoats, top hats, and narrow neckties.
Such unusual attire, combined with non-conventional hairstyles and body-piercing, caused a minor sensation among the traditional and conservative local community in Historic Cairo. Very quickly however the local people appreciated that the journeymen were highly skilled professionals and were serious about their work. Despite cultural differences and the language barrier, there was a continuous exchange of knowledge and experience.
The Wandergesellen were remarkably easily accepted by the local community and formed bonds of genuine friendship Dobrowolska, Figure German stonecutters at work in the mosque of Sam Ibn Nuh and The completion of work before the feast ending the Muslim holy month was important for the community, and was met with much satisfaction. It began with an iftar feast-breaking meal for three hundred people, followed late into the night with music and performances, in line with the long tradition of mulids in Egypt, festivals that mix religious ceremonies and joyous festivities full of folk art and popular culture.
The building keeps serving as a neighbourhood mosque. Wishing all South Africans a happy Day of Reconciliation. It's been an interesting year for tourism, but did produce a few a great victories for the industry and for South Africa as a whole, including SATSA - Official launching a world-class animal interactions guide, The Rugby World Cup, Ndlovu Youth Choir, roadshows and progress with unabridged birth certificates.
Industry leaders tell us a bit more about the highs and lows of Inthe industry saw an increase in the demand for shorter trips, a travel trend which is set to continue into TourvestDM offers options for those selling packages to clients who have limited time, including a host of short tours across South Africa.
Christiaan Steyn, General Manager of Drifters Adventours tells us more about the increase in the demand for shorter tours Tourvest Holdings wholeheartedly supports the decision by the government to hand South African Airways SAA over to a restructuring specialist, as part of a R4 billion business rescue plan started last Thursday.
It signals a new era of bold leadership in the tourism and travel industry and the South African economy as a whole, which SAA plays a critical role in. Congratulations to all the award winners at the Endangered Wildlife Trust! We hosted our annual awards evening last week - an opportunity for the EWT to recognise the team members who have excelled in various ways.
A massive thanks mus … t go to Trappers and Faithful To Nature for donating the wonderful prizes that allowed us to spoil the worthy winners:. Today our staff are celebrating a fantastic year of hard work, teamwork and success, and are enjoying an afternoon of delicious food, great company, relaxation, games and prizes Happy Holidays everyone! Welcome to the TDMTribe! Please join us in giving our newbies a warm welcome as they embark on an epic journey in the tourism industry.
From surfing in the warm waters of the EasternCapeto overnight hikes in the caves of the Drakensburg - here are 10 reasons why you should definitely pay a v … isit to SouthAfrica this summer, courtesy of SA-Venues. The Victoria Falls is on the Rise Again! The water levels of the Victoria Falls fluctuate dramatically throughout the year and is heavily dependent on the amount of rain that falls in the catchment area above it.
The rainy season is normally between November and March, so the Falls are at their fullest between March and June, and at their lowest between August and November. Come and join us for a fun day of jumping. Catering will be available so bring your family and friends for breakfast while you jump. Shortlands riders had a fabulous time at Ride4Rhino yesterday with all the horses having a ball on the beach. Well done to everyone that took part. Uma on Biscuit 3rd dressage 1st equitation … 2nd competition jumping.
Rebecca Courtenay on Play the Deuce got third place in 90cm Show jumping, third place in 90cm Equitation, seventh place in 90cm two-phase. We are all so proud of these amazing brothers! These are just a few of the results as we are awaiting more from parents!
Join us for a New Year training show on Sunday the 28th of January at 10am. Starts at pole on the ground and will go up to open. R per class with no ground levy. Aller vers.